Because Congress enacted legislation requiring federal agencies to adjust their civil penalties to account for inflation in November of 2015, the Department of Labor has adjusted penalties for its agencies, including OSHA. These adjustments took effect August 2, 2016. Any citations issued by OSHA on or after this date will be subject to the new penalties if the related violations occurred after November 2, 2015.
This chart, from OSHA’s website, outlines the new maximum penalties.
Keep in mind that states which operate their own Occupational Safety and Health Plans are required to adopt maximum penalty levels that are at least as effective as Federal OSHA’s.